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Caesalpinia bonduc, Caesalpinia bonducella, Caesalpinia crista, Guilandina bonduc

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Shivani Kagra* & K.L. Dahiya**


* Pursuing Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgeory; Lal Bhadur Shastri Mahila Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Bilaspur (Yamuna Nagar), Haryana, India

** Kurukshetra Global City, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India


Vernacular name:

Bengali: Kaantaa Karanjaa, Naataa, Naataa Karanjaa

English: Bonduc Nut, Fever Nut, Gray nicker, Nicker seed, Nicker bean, Yellow Nicker

Gujarati: Kaanchakaa, Kaanka

Hindi: Kantkarej, Kantikaranja, Karanja, Karanjuaa, Kaantaa Karanj, Kuberakshi

Kannada: Gajjike Kaayi, Gajkai

Malayalam: Kalamchikuru, Kaalanchi, Kalanchi, Kazhinch - Kai

Marathi: Saagar gotaa, Gajarghotaa, Gaajagaa, Sagarlata

Oriya: Kotokolejaa

Sanskrit: Latakaranjah, Kuberakshi, Kantaki karanjah, Kuberaksa

Tamil: Kajha shikke, Kalichchikkaai

Telugu: Gachchakaay, Gachchakaya

Urdu: Akitmakit

Taxonomic Hierarchy

Kingdom: Plantae – plantes, Planta, Vegetal, plants

Subkingdom: Viridiplantae

Infrakingdom: Streptophyta – land plants

Superdivision: Embryophyta

Division: Tracheophyta – vascular plants, tracheophytes

Subdivision: Spermatophytina – spermatophytes, seed plants, phanérogames

Class: Magnoliopsida

Superorder: Rosanae

Order: Fabales

Family: Fabaceae – peas, legumes

Genus: Guilandina L.

Species: Guilandina bonduc L. - Yellow Nicker, Gray nicker, nicker seed, bonduc nut, Fever nut, nicker bean - (Syn. Caesalpinia bonduc, Caesalpinia bonducella, Caesalpinia crista)

Phytogeography: India, Nigeria. Hotter parts of India particularly along the sea coasts and upto 830 meter, West Bengal and South India.

Description: A large, thorny, straggling, shrub which behaves like a strong woody climber, taking support of trees. The branches are armed with hooks and straight hard yellow prickles.

Leaves: Large, double compound, with 7 pairs of pinnae, and each with 3-8 pairs of leaflets with 1-2 small recurved prickles between them on the underside.

Flowers: Yellow, in dense long-stalked racemes at the top.

Fruits: Inflated pods, covered with wiry prickles. Seeds are 1-2 per pod, oblong or globular, hard, grey with a smooth shiny surface.

Seeds: The hard and shiny seeds are green, turning grey.

Propagation: Seeds

Parts used: Seeds, roots, leaves, bark

Phytochemical Constituents: a-caesalpin; b-caesalpin; Aminoacids; Arginine; Aspartic acid; Bonducin; Caesalmin X; Caesalmin Y; Caesalmin Z; Cassane diterpenoids; Fixed oil; Phenolics; Phytosterenin; Phytosterol; Saponin; Starch; Sucrose; γ-caesalpin; δ-caesalpin; ζ-caesalpin.

Pharmacological actions: Antibacterial; Antimycobacterial; Antimicrobial; Anti snake venom; Anticonvulsant; Antifeedant; Anti-ophidian; Antioxidant; Anti-psoriasis; Antipyretic; Antitussive; Arthritis; Cosmetic; Febrifuge; Hepatoprotective, hepatocuritive; Larvicidal; Pupicidal; Tonic; Uterotonic.

Medicinal uses: Agricultural pests; Amenorrhoea; Arthritis; Convulsion; Cough; Diabetes mellitus; Dysmenorrhea; Dyspepsia; Fever; Helminthiasis, worm infestation; Hepatosis, hepatopathy, hepatitis; Jaundice; Malaria; Otorrhoea; Psoriasis; Snake bite.

Fruits are tonic and antipyretic. Seeds yield fatty oil used as a cosmetic and for discharges from the ear. Leaves and bark are febrifuge.

Other uses: They are used for jewelry.

Dosage and administration: Seeds: 1-3 gm.


Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee, 2006, “The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part I, Volume V,” New Delhi, India: Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH).

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