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Vitis vinifera, Cissus vinifera

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Shivani Kagra* & K.L. Dahiya**


* Pursuing Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgeory; Lal Bahadur Shastri Mahila Ayurvedic College and Hospital, Bilaspur (Yamuna Nagar), Haryana, India

** Kurukshetra Global City, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India


Vernacular name:

Assamese: Dakh, Munaqqa

Bengali: Maneka

English: Dry Grapes, Raisins, Grape Vine, Wine grape

Gujarati: Drakh, Darakh

Hindi: Munkka

Kannada: Draksha

Malayalam: Munthringya

Marathi: Draksha, Angur

Oriya: Drakya, Gostoni

Punjabi: Munaca

Sanskrit: Mrdvika, Gostani

Tamil: Drakshai, Kottai Drakshai

Telugu: Draksha

Urdu: Munaqqa

Taxonomic Hierarchy

Kingdom: Plantae – plantes, Planta, Vegetal, plants

Subkingdom: Viridiplantae

Infrakingdom: Streptophyta – land plants

Superdivision: Embryophyta

Division: Tracheophyta – vascular plants, tracheophytes

Subdivision: Spermatophytina – spermatophytes, seed plants, phanérogames

Class: Magnoliopsida

Superorder: Rosanae

Order: Vitales

Family: Vitaceae – grapes

Genus: Vitis L. – grape

Species: Vitis vinifera L. – Grape Vine, Wine grape – (Syn. Cissus vinifera)

Phytogeography: India, Korea. Grape Vine is native to the Mediterranean region, central Europe, and southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Portugal north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran. Cultivated throughout India.

The species typically occurs in humid forests and stream sides. The grape is eaten fresh, processed to make wine or juice, or dried to produce raisins. Cultivars of Vitis vinifera form the basis of the majority of wines produced around the world. All of the familiar wine varieties belong to Vitis vinifera, which is cultivated on every continent except for Antarctica, and in all the major wine regions of the world.

Description: A liana growing up to 30 meter tall, with flaky bark.

Leaves: Alternate, palmately lobed, 5-20 cm long and broad.

Flowers: Borne in large inflorescences carried on stalks 4-5 cm long, often bearing unbranched tendril. Flower are bisexual or functionally pistillate with shorter sterile stamens, greenish in colour, about 1.5 x 1 mm, flower-stalk about2 mm long, wiry, elongated and thickened in fruit. Calyx is minute, cup-shaped. Petals are 5, about 1.5 mm long, lance shaped.

Fruits: Berry, known as a grape, sticky and pulpy, dark brown to black; oblong or oval, sometimes spherical; 1.5 -2.5 cm long and 0.5-1.5 cm wide; outer skin irregularly wrinkled forming ridges and furrows; usually contain 1-4 seeds, 4-7 mm long, ovoid rounded to triangular or simply ovoid, brown to black; odour, sweetish and pleasant; taste, sweet. In the wild species it is ~6 mm in diameter and ripens dark purple to blackish with a pale wax bloom. In cultivated plants it is usually much larger, up to 3 cm long, and can be green, red, or purple-black.

Propagation: Cuttings

Parts used: Fruit, flowers, laves, seeds

Phytochemical Constituents: (−)-Malibatol A; (+)-Ampelopsin A; (+)-Ampelopsin F; (+)-E- w-Viniferin;  (+)-Viniferol A; (+)-Viniferol B; (+)-Viniferol C; (+)-Viniferol D; (+)-Viniferol E; (+)-Vitisifuran A; (+)-Vitisifuran B; a-Viniferin; Ampelopsin D; Ampelopsin H; Anthocyanins; Carbohydrates; E-w-Viniferin; E-/Z-w-Viniferin; E-/Z-Piceid; E-/Z-Resveratrol; E-/Z-trans-Miyabenol C; E-/Z-trans-Miyabenol C; E-cis-Miyabenol C; E-Piceatannol; E-Piceid; E-Pterostilbene; E-Resveratrol; E-Resveratrol-2-C-glucoside; E-trans-Miyabenol C; E-Vitisin B; E-Vitisin C; E-δ-Viniferin; Flavonols; Gnetin H; Hopeaphenol; Isohopeaphenol; Malic acid; Oxalic acid; Pallidol; Polyphenols; Proanthocyanidins; Quadrangularin A; Resveratrol; Scirpusin A; Stilbene; Tannins; Vaticanol C isomer; Viniferifuran; Vitisin A; Z-w-Viniferin; Tartaric acid.

Pharmacological actions: Anti snake venom; Antiatherogenic; Anti-atherosclerotic; Antibacterial; Anticancerogenic; Antiemetic; Antihyperlipidemic, Hypolipidemic; Antihypertensive, hypotensive; Anti-Inflammatory; Antimicrobial; Anti-obesity; Anti-ophidian; Antioxidant; Antiviral; Cardiotonic; Hepatoprotective, hepatocuritive; Neuroprotective; Pancreatic lipase inhibitor; Vasorelaxant.

Medicinal uses: Alzheimer’s Disease; Atherosclerosis; Cardiopathy; Cholera; Constipation; Emesis, vomiting; Hepatosis, hepatopathy, hepatitis; Hyperlipidemia; Nausea; Obesity; Skin disorders; Snake bite.

Fruit useful in vitiated condition of pitta. Flowers employed in hepatopathy.

Other uses: Grapes are eaten as fruit

Dosage and administration: Fruits: 5-10 gm (API)


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