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Punjab, India

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Avdisha, 8th Standard, Wisdom World School, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India - 136118

Area: 50,362 sq. km

Population: 2,77,43,338 (census 2011)

Capital: Chandigarh

Jurisdiction of High Court: Punjab, Haryana and Chandigarh

Principle language: Punjabi

State flower: Not Designated

State tree: Indian Rosewood

State animal: Blackbuck

State bird: Northern goshawk

Official website: http//www.punjab.gov.in

Ancient Punjab formed part of the vast Indo-Iranian region. In later years it saw the rise and fall of the Mauryas, Bactrians, Greeks, Sakas, Kushans and Guptas. Medieval Punjab saw a supremacy of the Muslims. Ghaznavi was followed by the Ghoris, the slaves, the Khiljis, the Tughlaks, the Lodhis and the Mughals. Fifteenth and sixteenth centuries marked a period of watershed in the history of Punjab. Through teachings of Guru Nanak, Bhakti movement received a great impetus. Sikhism began as a socio religious movement, which was more interested in fighting evils in religion and society. It was Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Guru, who transformed the Sikhs into the Khalsa. They rose to challenge the tyranny and after centuries of servitude, established a Punjabi Raj based on secularism and patriotism. Maharaja Ranjit Singh, in the works of a Persian writer, changed Punjab from Madam-Kada to Bagh-Bahist (from the abode of sorrow to the garden of paradise). But soon after his death the entire edifice collapsed due to internal intrigues and British machinations. After two abortive Anglo-Sikh wars, Punjab was finally annexed to the British Empire in 1849.

The fight against the British rule had begun long before Mahatma Gandhi’s arrival on the scene. The revolt found expression through the movement of a revivalist or reformist character. It was Lala Lajpat Rai who played a leading role in the freedom movement. Punjab was in the vanguard of India’s freedom struggle on all fronts in India and abroad. Punjab’s hardships did not end with Independence. It had to face the misery of partition with large-scale blood shed and migration. Besides their rehabilitation, there was the task of re-organization of the state.

Eight princely states of East Punjab were grouped together to form a single state called PEPSU - Patiala and the East Punjab States Union - with Patiala as its capital. PEPSU state was merged with Punjab in 1956 with its capital at Chandigarh. Later in 1966, Haryana was carved out of Punjab. Situated in the north-western corner of the country, Punjab is bound on the west by Pakistan, on the north by Jammu and Kashmir, on the north-east by Himachal Pradesh and on the south by Haryana and Rajasthan. There are 13 Members of Parliament from Punjab and 117 Members of Legislature.


Punjab has achieved an extraordinary growth in the field of agriculture. The state has about 4.2 million hectares of cultivable area, which is 3 per cent of the net area sown in the country. It produces about 18.4 per cent of India’s wheat and 10.4 per cent of rice from 11.3 per cent and 6.6 per cent of the total area under wheat and rice; it has contributed 25-50 per cent of rice and 38-75 per cent of wheat to the Central pool of food-grains over the last four decades. Punjab ranks seventh as gross producer of wheat in the world. It generates third largest marketable surplus after Canada and Australia which is about one tenth of the global trade in wheat. In the case of rice, its marketable surplus is second only to Thailand.

A comprehensive Crop Diversification Plan with emphasis on increasing area under maize, cotton and other alternative crops is being implemented. The area under maize cultivation increased from 1.5 to 1.72 lakh hectares in the Kharif season. In addition, the Department has facilitated the setting-up of two maize drying units at Saila Khurd (Hoshiarpur) and SBS Nagar, with a view to ensuring proper marketing of the crop. Besides, Punjab has fixed a target to bring 2 lac hectares under maize cultivation in 2016-17.

Under National Horticulture Mission, Centres of Excellence have been established at Kartarpur (Jalandhar) and Khanaura (Hoshiarpur). Centres of Excellence for potato and flowers are being established under Indo-Dutch agreement. Litchi and pear estates with ultramodern laboratory and state of art nursery would also be set up. The state government has ensured the full payment of arrears to the cane growers in the state and for this purpose, 331 crore was disbursed during 2015-16. An amount of 350 crore was provided for 2016-17.


There are 1.59 lakh small-scale and 454 (projects) large and medium units in the state of Punjab as by 2015.These units produce bicycle parts, sewing machines, hand tolls, machine tools, auto parts, electrical items, sports goods, surgical instruments, leather goods, hosiery, knitwear, nuts and bolts, textile goods, textile, sugar, vegetable oil, etc., giving employment to about 13.85 lakh persons. Separately, 46 clusters have been proposed to GoI under its different schemes namely Micro & Small Enterprises Cluster Development Programme for development in the state. Out of these proposals, 28 proposals have been approved by Government of India for conducting Diagnostic Study Report which is at different stages of implementation under the programme.


The total geographical area of the state is 50.36 lakh hectares out of which about 42.90 lakh hectares area is under cultivation. After partition of the country in 1947, Indus water treaty of 1960 between India and Pakistan restricted India right to usage to only three eastern rivers Satluj, Beas and Ravi. The state has three dams namely Bhakra Dam with storage capacity of 5.60 MAF constructed on river Satluj, Pong Dam with storage capacity 5.91 MAF constructed on river Beas and a diversion Dam at Pandoh Upstream of Pong Dam for Diversion of 3.82 MAF of waters of river.

Beas into Bhakra reservoir and Ranjit Sagar Dam with a storage capacity of 1.90 MAF construct on river Ravi. At present the area under irrigation is 30.88 lakh hectares, which is 71.98 per cent of the area under cultivation. The canal surface water distribution system consists of 14500 km of canals / distributaries covering six major systems in the state.


Punjab has achieved the status of power surplus state in the country with inauguration of two new thermal power plants at Rajpura (1400 MW) and Talwandi Sabo (1980 MW) in 2013.


Punjab Government’s department of New and Renewable Energy with its nodal agency Punjab Energy Agency (PEDA) have installed 1100 MW capacity NRSE power plants out of which 491 MW capacity solar power plants with the investment of 8,000 crores which are equivalent to planting 4.30 crore trees. This initiative had also provided direct and indirect jobs to 5,000 youth. Punjab has set up a target of installation of 2,550 MW capacity solar power plants by or before the year 2022.


Roads: The total road network length is 71742 km, consisting of 2630 km national highways 1133 km state highways, 1826 km major district roads and 5119 km of other district roads(ODRs) and 61034 km rural link roads. Out of the link roads PWD B&R looks after 31696 km and Punjab Mandi Board looks after 29338 km of link roads.

Aviation: Punjab has two international airports at Amritsar (Rajasansi) and Mohali. First phase of the terminal building at Mohali airport is complete and awaiting commissioning.

Fairs and Festivals

Besides festivals of Dussehra, Diwali, Holi, other important festivals/fairs/ melas are Maghi Mela at Mukatsar, Rural Sports at Kila Raipur, Basant at Patiala, Holla Mohalla at Anandpur Sahib, Baisakhi at Talwandi Saboo, Urs at Rauza Sharif at Sirhind, Chappar Mela at Chappar, Skeikh Farid Aagman Purb at Faridkot, Ram Tirath at Village Ram Tirath, Shaheedi Jor Mela at Sirhind, Harballab Sangeet Sammelan Baba Sodal at Jalandhar. In addition to these, three heritage festivals at Amritsar, Patiala, Kapurthala are also celebrated every year and are very popular among the tourists.

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