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Manipur, India

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Avdisha, 8th Standard, Wisdom World School, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India - 136118

Area: 22,327 sq. km

Population: 28.56 lakh (census 2011)

Capital: Imphal

Jurisdiction of High Court: A permanent Bench of the Guwahati High Court, Imphal Bench started functioning from March 14, 1992

Principle language: Manipuri

State flower: Siroy Lily

State tree: Bonsum

State animal: Sangai

State bird: Mrs. Hume's pheasant

Official website: http://www.manipur.gov.in

Manipur has a long and glorious history from before the beginning of the Christian era. The political history of Manipur could be traced back to 33 A.D. with the coronation of Nongda Lairen Pakhangba. After Pakhangba a number of kings ruled over the kingdom of Manipur. The independence and sovereignty remained uninterrupted until the Burmese invasion and occupation for around seven years in the first quarter of the 19th century (1819-1826). Then, Manipur came under British Rule in 1891. Manipur regained its independence in 1947 and merged into Indian Union in 1950. Thus, it became a Part C State under the purview of Chief Commissioner. During 1950-51, an advisory form of Government was introduced and in 1957 this was replaced by a Territorial Council of 30 elected and 2 nominated members. Later, in 1963 a Territorial Assembly of 30 elected and 3 nominated members was set up under the Government of Union Territories Act, 1963. The status of administrator was raised from that of a Chief Commissioner to that of a Lt. Governor in December, 1969. Manipur became a full-fledged state in 1972 with a Legislative Assembly of 60 members of whom 19 are reserved for Scheduled Tribes and one for Scheduled Castes. The state is represented in the Lok Sabha by two members and by one member in the Rajya Sabha.

The state is situated in the extreme north-eastern border of India. It is bound on the east by upper Myanmar, on the north by Nagaland, on the west by Cachar district of Assam and on the south by Chin Hills of Myanmar and Mizoram. Manipur has a total border line of about 854 km of which about 352 km are international boundary line with Myanmar on the east and south-east. This state is in a geographically unique position, since it virtually is the meeting point between India and South-East Asia. Manipur lies between 23.80° N and 25.68° N latitude and between 93.03° E and 94.78° E longitude.

The state has a total area of 22,327 sq. km. There is a small oval shaped plain in the central part. This central plain known as Imphal Valley is at a height of about 790 metres above Mean Sea Level (MSL). This valley is surrounded by hills on all sides. The hill covers about 9/10 of the total area of the state. The hill ranges are higher on the north and gradually diminish in height towards the south. The valley itself slopes down towards the south.


Agriculture and allied activities are the only mainstay of the state’s economy where about 70 per cent of the population depends on it. The state has two topographical zones - valley and hills. The valley is known as the ‘Rice Bowl’ of the state. The valley has sub-tropical to tropical to sub-temperate climates. The hills have sub-temperate to temperate climate with an average altitude of 3000 metres above MSL. It has distinct winter, warm, humid and rainy summer. The average rainfall during the last ten years has been recorded 1482.20 mm, with heavy precipitation during the month of June, July and August. The growth of agriculture in the state has been quite uneven for the reason that its production still depends on seasonal rainfall. During the 12th Five Year Plan thrust was given to get self-security in foodgrains, oilseeds, sugarcane and potato.


In terms of forest canopy density classes, it has 701 sq. km of very dense forests, 5474 sq. km. moderately dense forests and 11,105 sq. kms open forests. An overall increase in forest cover of 328 sq. km was seen from 2005 to 2007. This overall increase in forest cover is mainly due to regeneration in abandoned jhum areas.


Major and medium irrigation projects had been introduced in the state since 1980. So far 8 (eight) major and medium irrigation and multipurpose projects have been taken up of which 5 projects viz. Loktak Lift Irrigation Project, Khoupum Dam Project, Imphal Barrage Project, Sekmai Barrage Project and Singda Multipurpose Project have been completed.

Commerce and Industries

The handloom industry is by far the largest and most important cottage industry. It improves the socio-economic conditions of handloom weavers and has attained high degree of excellence. As per the 3rd National Handloom Census of Weavers and Allied Workers 2010 conducted by the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER), Manipur topped in distribution of handloom workers. There are 218,753 handloom workers (200,607 weavers, 18, 146 workers) which is 4th position among the top states of the country, 1,90,634 looms which is 3rd position and consuming 186,703 kg of yarn in 2009-10 which is 3rd in the country. About 91 per cent of the total handloom workers are independent weavers outside the cooperative/master weavers/corporation/KVIC/private owners. Manipur is, therefore, among the top four states of the country promoting and nurturing the handloom industry for generating employment to a large section of the state’s population.


Power supply in Manipur is fully dependent on the Central Generating Stations situated in the North Eastern Region (NER). As the generating stations in the NER are mainly of hydel in nature, during lean period there is a shortfall in generation and therefore the available share of Manipur reduces drastically.


Roads: Road transport is the only means of communication in the state and there are no inland waterways, railways or ropeways. All development activities depend entirely on the road transport facilities.

The total length of roads in Manipur (including national highways, NEC, BRTF and roads under Rural Development) was 12,618 km.

Three national highways : i) NH-39, ii) NH-53 and iii) NH-150 criss-cross the state connecting all districts. Imphal, the capital is connected by NH-39 with Nagaland on the north and Myanmar on the east, on the west with Assam by NH-53 and Mizoram on the south by NH-150.

Aviation: Imphal airport is the second largest airport in the north eastern region, which is connected to Agartala, Aizwal, Dimapur, Guwahati, Kolkata, Pune, Silchar, Bengaluru and New Delhi.

The airport is being upgraded to international status. The construction of infrastructure for Night Landing Facility at Imphal airport has been completed and Night Flights have started.

Railways: The state was included in the railway map of India with the opening of a rail head at Jiribam in May 1990. It is 225 km from Imphal. Dimapur (Nagaland), 215 km from Imphal is the nearest rail-head. The Jiribam – Tupul -Imphal railway line has been declared as a national project. Construction of the line is in good progress and is targeted for completion by 2014 (upto Tupul) and 2016 (upto Imphal).


A year in Manipur represents a cycle of festivals. Hardly a month passes by without a festival which to the Manipuris is a symbol of their social, cultural and religious aspirations. Important festivals of the state are Lai Haraoba, Rasa Leela, Cheiraoba, Ningol Chak-Kouba, Rath-Jatra, Idul Fitr, Imoinu Iratpa, Gaan-Ngai, Lui-Ngai-Ni, Idul Zuha. Yaoshang (Holi), Durga Puja, Mera Houchongba, Diwali, Kut, Christmas, etc.

Tourist Centres

Manipur is not only the gateway of the north eastern region but is also a fascinating destination for discerning tourists. Blessed with a salubrious climate, natural beauty and scenic splendour, the state extends to the tourists a warm welcome. Some important tourist centres in the state are Kangla, Shree Shree Govindajee Temple, Khwalramband Bazar (Ima Keithel), War Cemeteries, Shaheed Minar, Nupi Lan (Women's War) Memorial Complex, Khonghampat Orchidarium, INA Memorial (Moirang), Loktak Lake, Keibul Lamjao National Park, Sendra, Moreh, Siroy Hills, Dzuko Valley, State Museum, Kaina Tourist Home, Khongjom War Memorial Complex, India Peace Memorial (Red Hill), etc.

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