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Goa, India

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Avdisha, 8th Standard, Wisdom World School, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India - 136118

Area: 3,702 sq. km

Population: 14.59 lakh (census 2011)

Capital: Panaji

Jurisdiction of High Court: Goa Bench of Bombay

Principle language: Konkani (Official language), Marathi, Hindi, English, Kannada

State flower: Not Designated

State tree: Indian Laurel

State animal: Gaur

State bird: Black crested bulbul

Official website: http://www.goa.gov.in

Goa, known in the bygone days as Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Gomantak, etc., abounds in a rich historical heritage. Early history of Goa is obscure. In the first century of the Christian era, Goa was a part of the Satavahana empire, followed by the Kadamba, the Rashtrakutas of Malkhed, the Chalukyas and the Silharas. The empire of the Yadavas by the end of the 14th century was displaced by the Khiljis of Delhi and thus Muslim rule came to Goa. After the discovery of the sea route to India by Vasco-da-Gama in 1498, many Portuguese expeditions came to India. In 1510, Alfonso de Albuquerque with the help of the emperor of Vijayanagar attacked and captured Goa. With the arrival of the Jesuit priest Francis Xavier in 1542 proselytisation began in Goa. However, the Portuguese continued to rule over the territory except for an interlude during the latter half of the 17th century when Shivaji conquered a few areas in and around Goa.

Even after India’s independence, Goa continued to be in the hands of the Portuguese. However, they could not fulfill the aspirations of the Goan people and ultimately on 19 December 1961, Goa was liberated and made a composite Union Territory with Daman and Diu. In May 1987, Goa was conferred statehood and Daman and Diu was made a separate Union Territory. It is situated on the western coast of the Indian peninsula. On its north runs the Terekhol river which separates Goa from Maharashtra and on the south lies north Canara district of Karnataka. On the east lie the Western Ghats and in the west the Arabian Sea. Panaji, Margao, Vasco, Mapusa and Ponda are the main towns of Goa.


The total cultivated area in Goa is 160,320 hectares while the total production is 108,333 tonnes. Several schemes have also been launched by the Government to promote farming and attract youth towards this activity. Farmers can avail the benefit of up to 90 per cent on solar power battery fencing scheme. A subsidy of upto 90 per cent is also provided for construction of poly-houses and green houses. Similar subsidies are provided for drip irrigation and for construction of biogas plants. In order to enhance the yield of sugarcane it is proposed to provide 90 per cent subsidy on drip irrigation. The Government has also taken steps to recognize the contribution from biogas to contribution of progressive farmers to the states economy by awarding them three state level awards of 2.00 lakhs, 1.00 lakh and 50,000 called Krishi Ratna, Krishi Vibhushan and Krishi Bhushan, respectively.

Water Resources

The Tillari Irrigation Project, an ambitious joint venture project under major and medium irrigation aimed at creating an irrigation potential of 21,056 hectares and 117.03 MCM of water for domestic and industrial has been taken-up. For better and efficient utilization of the potential so created, apart from the irrigation purpose it is proposed to supply the raw water to domestic and industrial units in the state and augment its supply to PWD. The Water Resources Department apart from supplying raw water for irrigation has also augmented raw water supply to the PWD. Assonora Water Works has been augmented with a 25 MLD raw water from Chapora river at Sal and 10 MLD from Amthane tank. Opa Water Works has been augmented with a 50 MLD raw water to Kalay river. 35 MLD raw water is fed from Madei river at Gunjem to Khandepur river.

Social Welfare

It is proposed to provide a insurance cover through an insurance policy scheme to be called as ‘Swaranjayanti Aarogya Bima’ to the entire resident population of the state similar on the lines of Central Government’s health insurance scheme for BPL families called ‘Rashtriya Bima Swasthya Yojana.


All schemes under the State Industrial Policy as well as the State Biotech Policy will continue to be in force and are to be popularized further. To provide encouragement to artisans of Goan handicrafts, it is proposed to develop Goa Haat-cum-shilpagram, new emporia in Goa and outside Goa and develop e-portal for the sale of handicraft items across the globe.

Art and Culture

The Government desires to give thrust on library movement in Goa in order to make the libraries as information and knowledge centres. It intends to document all forms of folk art, folk festivals, other cultural traditions and intangible heritage of Goa, through audio-video documentation, for which adequate budgetary provision has been provided within the existing scheme for art and culture.


Roads: Of the motorable roads, national highway constitutes 264 km, state highways 279.4 km and other roads MDR/RR/4501.18 km.

Railways: Goa is linked with Mumbai, Mangalore and Thiruvananthapuram through the Konkan Railway, which has introduced several fast trains on these lines. Vasco da Gama is connected with Bengaluru and Belgaum on the South Central Railway, presently for goods traffic only.

Aviation: Mumbai, Delhi, Thiruvananthapuram, Cochin, Chennai, Agati and Bengaluru are linked with Dabolim through regular airline services.

Ports: Mormugao is the major port in the state. Mormugao handles cargo vessels. Minor ports are located at Panaji, Tiracol, Chapora Betul and Talpona, out of which Panaji is the main operative port. One off-shore berth at Panaji has also been commissioned.

Tourist Centres

Important tourist centres are Colva, Calangute, Vagator, Baga, Harmal, Anjuna and Miramar beaches; Basilica of Bom Jesus and St. Cathedral churches at Old Goa; Kavlem, Mardol, Mangeshi, Bandora temples; Aguada, Terekhol, Chapora and Cabo de Rama Forts; Dudhsagar and Harvalem waterfalls and Mayem lake resort. The state has rich wildlife sanctuaries, viz., Bondla, Cotigao, Molem and Dr Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary at Chorao covering an area of 354 sq km.


Goa has a good forest cover of 34 per cent against the national requirement of 33 per cent and nearly 62 per cent tree cover. During the year 6 lakh seedlings were planted and nearly one lakh seedlings distributed to various institutions and industries to make tree planting a people’s movement.


Goa became the first state in the country to launch diabetic registry. The new district hospital at Margao, new district hospital at Mapusa and the new 170 bedded ID hospital at Ponda are important hospitals. Other new hospitals at Sanqulim, Bicholim and Valpoi are under construction.

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