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Andhra Pradesh, India

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Avdisha, 8th Standard, Wisdom World School, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India - 136118

Area: 1,60,200 sq.km

Population: 4.9 crore (Census 2011)

Capital: Hyderabad

Jurisdiction of High Court: Andhra Pradesh and Telangana

Principle language: Telugu, Urdu, Hindi, Banjara

State flower: Kamal (Lotus)

State tree: Neem

State animal: Blackbuck

State bird: Indian roller

Official website: http//www.ap.gov.in

The earliest mention of the Andhras is said to be in Aitereya Brahmana (2000 BC). It indicates that the Andhras, originally an Aryan race living in north India migrated to south of the Vindhyas and later mixed with non-Aryans. Regular history of Andhra Desa, according to historians, begins with 236 BC, the year of Ashoka’s death. During the following centuries, Satavahanas, Sakas, Ikshvakus, Eastern Chalukyas, and Kakatiyas ruled the Telugu country. Other dynasties that ruled over the area in succession were the kingdoms of Vijayanagar and Qutub Shahi followed by Mir Qumruddin and his successors, known as the Nizams. Gradually, from the 17th century onwards, the British annexed territories of the Nizam and constituted the single province of Madras. After Independence, Telugu-speaking areas were separated from the composite Madras Presidency and a new Andhra State came into being on 1st October 1953. With the passing of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, there was a merger of Hyderabad State and Andhra State, and consequently Andhra Pradesh came into being on 1 November 1956.

Andhra Pradesh is situated on the country’s southeastern coast. It is the eighth largest state in the country covering an area of 160,205 sq. km. According to 2011 census, the state is tenth largest by population, with 49,386,799 inhabitants.

The state has the second longest coastline of 974 km (605mi) among all the states of India, second only to Gujarat. It borders Telangana in the north-west, Chhattisgarh in the north, Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south and water body of Bay of Bengal in the east. A small enclave of 30 sq. km of a district of Puducherry, lies in the Godavari delta to the north east of the State.

Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014

Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 commonly called Telangana Act is an Act of Indian Parliament proclaiming the bifurcation of the Andhra Pradesh state into two states, Telangana and residuary Andhra Pradesh. The Act consists of all aspects of division of assets and liabilities, finalize the boundaries of the proposed new states and status of Hyderabad.


Agriculture is the main occupation of about 62 per cent of the people in the state. Rice is a major food crop and staple food contributing about 77 per cent of the foodgrain production. Other important crops are jowar, bajra, maize, ragi, small millets, pulses, castor, tobacco, cotton and sugarcane. Forests cover 23 per cent of the state’s area. Important forest products are teak, eucalyptus, cashew, casuarina, bamboo, softwood, etc.

The Government is working with a mission of “Sustainable agriculture production with minimum cost of cultivation, eventually enhancing the return on income to the farmer”. In the process of making the mission a reality, the Government is implementing schemes for the welfare of farmers like 9 hours free power supply, subsidized seeds, subsidized interest rate on crop loans, subsidized and quality agricultural inputs, etc. Andhra Pradesh occupies the first position in respect of agricultural loans from commercial and cooperative banks.

The debt waiver scheme of Central Government and the incentive scheme of the state government have helped about one crore farmers in the state to the tune of 16,000 crore.


A total of 86 projects (44 major+30 medium+4 flood banks+8 modernisation) have been taken up under jalayagnam programme. The programme aims at completing the ongoing and new projects in a record time to provide immediate irrigation to water starved areas on top priority by mobilizing funds from all possible sources.


Important power projects in the state are the Nagarjunasagar and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Sagar (Srisailam Hydel Project), Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadra Hydel projects and Nellore, Ramagundam, Kothagudem, Vijayawada and Mudanur Thermal Power Projects. The Srisailam Hydro Electric Project (Right Bank) with an installed capacity of 770 MW and the Srisailam Left Bank HES capacity of 900 MW and the Nagarjunasagar complex with 960 MW are the principal sources of hydel generation. Vijayawada Thermal Power Station with an installed capacity of 1,260 MW and Kothagudem Thermal Power Station with an installed capacity of 1,220 MW are the main sources of thermal power generation. The 1,000 MW coal based Simhadri Thermal Power Station aims at supplying the entire energy generated to the state.


The state government is extending various incentives for SSI and tiny sector and large and medium scale industries. The state government has been promoting the manufacturing sector in a big way by providing concessions in power tariff, allotting land and relaxing labour laws in Special Economic Zones (SEZs). The state has recommended to the centre for setting up 59 IT/ITES SEZs, with active private sector participation.

Mines and Geology

Andhra Pradesh is well known globally for its variety of rocks and minerals and is called Ratna Garbha. The state has the largest deposits of quality chrysotile asbestos in the country. Other important minerals found in the state are copper ore, manganese, mica, coal and limestone. The Singareni Coal Mines supply coal to the entire south India. The mineral consumption is increasing due to promotion of various industries and manufacture of mineral based products. The state produces about 100 to 110 million tonnes of industrial minerals and 200 million cubic metres of stone and building material. AP stands first in barytes and limestone production in the country. The state stands first in value of minor mineral production and second in total value of mineral production in the country contributing about 9 to 10 per cent to the country’s mineral value production. The state stands first in mineral revenue among the important mineral producing states of the country.


The government has introduced an innovative, unique, self financed housing scheme “Rajiv Swagruha” for the moderate income group in the state with an objective that every person with moderate income in the state having no house of his/her own must have a house at affordable cost in the urban/municipal areas in the state. The houses/flats have to be made available to them at prices 25 per cent less than the existing market rates on similar specifications. The construction of housing programme under “Rajiv Swagruha” is under progress.


’Rajiv Arogyasri’ is a unique health insurance scheme being implemented in Andhra Pradesh. The scheme enables the poor, suffering from chronic diseases, to undergo treatment costing upto 2 lakh. All white cardholders can undergo treatment for about 942 diseases. Medical and surgical treatment is provided in 344 corporate, private and government hospitals free of cost to patients. Arogyasri scheme is unique in its applicability, since no other state/government agency has provided universal health coverage to the poor for major ailments. The choice of hospital for treatment is with the patient. The entire process from the time of conduct of health camps to the screening, testing, treatment, follow-up and claim for payment is made transparent through online web-based processing to prevent any misuse and fraud.

Information Technology

Andhra Pradesh has been forging ahead in the sphere of Information Technology. It is ahead of other states in exploiting the opportunities to the hilt. The state government has introduced many schemes to utilize the maximum number of skilled human resources in the IT Sector.


Roads: The total R&B road network in the state is 69,051 km of which, the national highways passing through the state constitute 4,472 km and the state highways constitute 10,519 km. Major district roads constitute 32,170 km and rural roads 21,714 km. The density with reference to R&B road network in the state is 0.23 km per one sq.km. and 0.86 km per 1000 persons.

Railways: Of the railways route covering 5,107 km in Andhra Pradesh, 4,633 km is broad-gauge, 437 km is metregauge and 37 km is narrow gauge.

Aviation: Important airports in the state are located at Shamshabad, Tirupathi and Visakhapatnam. International flights are operated from Shamshabad.

Ports: There is one major port at Visakhapatnam under Government of India and 13 non-major ports under state government. Ports offer tremendous potential for development and for the growth of a wide spectrum of maritime activities such as international shipping, coastal shipping, ship repairs, fishing, captive ports for specific industries, all weather ports, tourism and sports, etc.

Tourist Centres

Andhra Pradesh Tourism Development Corporation continues to strive for promotion of new tourism products such as eco-tourism, beach-tourism and cruise-tourism. The Corporation currently runs a chain of 52 hotels with 1043 rooms and 2222 beds in prime locations fostering homely ambience. An impressive fleet of 144 buses cater to varied tour packages connecting important tourism locations within and outside the state.

Charminar, Salarjung Museum, Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, Thousand Pillar Temple and Fort in Warangal, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy Temple at Yadagirigutta, Buddha Stupa at Nagarjunakonda, Nagarjuna Sagar, Sri Venkateswara Temple at Tirumala-Tirupathi, Sri Mallikarjunaswamy Temple at Srisailam, Kanaka Durga Temple at Vijayawada, Sri Satyanarayana Swamy Temple at Annavaram, Sri Varaha Narasimha Swamy Temple at Simhachalam, Sri Sita Rama Temple at Bhadrachalam, Araku Valley, Horsley Hills, Nelapattu, etc. are the major tourist attractions in Andhra Pradesh.

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